John Stuart Mill is a great example of a classic consequentialist. His view in particular is called utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the view that in order to determine if an action is good or bad, we must look at the consequences of the act. Specifically, we must ask whether we can expect the action to give us utility. Utility is very similar to happiness. A thing has utility if it causes us more happiness and pleasure than pain and sadness. In short, utility is net happiness (the happiness left over after we take away all the unhappiness). Mill's utilitarianism is not an egocentric or self-centered view. One must not just look at the consequences for oneself; one must also consider the consequences for other people. Utilitarianism thus requires that we have expectations about the consequences of our behaviors. Although we may not know the consequence until we act, we must consider the consequences that we do expect to happen. In short, what makes an action moral is to maximize net expectable utility. Actions are good if they tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
One objection to utilitarianism might be that
it excludes the happiness or utility of animals from being relevant to
moral considerations. Someone might think that it is not enough that an
action promotes the good of human beings. Someone might think that we
must also consider whether an action promotes utility for animals.
Happiness Principle: The greatest end or goal is to achieve the absence
of pain and to maximize the quality and quantity of our happiness. We
perform all actions in order to achieve this goal (this is a descriptive
claim about what motivates our action).
that actions are right if they promote happiness and that actions are
wrong if they promote pain or the lack of happiness (this is a normative
claim that asserts that what is moral is what promotes happiness; Mill
derives a moral normative claim from his psychological descriptive
claim). In other words, if an action multiplies happiness then that
action is good.
Happiness is used as a technical term
in Mill. Happiness means pleasure. Mill talks about two kinds of
pleasure, or enjoyment. Sometimes, he is talking about a kind of mental
state, such as being happy or thinking that chocolate cake tastes
really good. Other times, he talks about actions or activities that are
likely to produce such pleasant mental states. Sven call pleasures
that are mental states "subjective pleasures" and he calls pleasures
that are activities or actions "objective pleasures".
is measured in two ways: quality (how good of a pleasure is it) and
quantity (how much pleasure is there). Quantity is measured by how many
people experience the good. We can also measure quantity by how long a
pleasure lasts or how many time the pleasure is experienced. Quality
can be measured in two ways. First, we can use a democratic method of
determining which pleasures are better; the more people who think a
pleasure is desirable, the better the pleasure is. For example, if more
people think that eating ice cream is more desirable than eating
bananas, then eating ice cream is a higher (better) good. Second, Mill
thinks that pleasures that involve using our minds and our rational
thinking are higher (better) than pleasures that only involve sensation.
For example, using our reasoning skills to solve a math problem is a
higher pleasure than eating ice cream.
Utilitarianism is a Universalism. This just means that we must consider
the happiness of all people. This means that it is not enough just to
consider consequences for our friends, families and neighbors. Rather,
we must consider the consequences for all humans. Moreover, we must
give equal weight to the utility (net happiness) of all people. This
universalistic dimension of Mill's utilitarianism is indicative of the
social justice issues that concerned Mill.
that social reform could be motivated by utilitarianism. In the time
in which he lived, he noted that happiness was not possible for everyone
because the education systems and other social institutions were
terrible. He wanted to create political change that could make
happiness possible for even the lowest classes of people. He thought
that disease could be eliminated through sanitation and education. Mill
also thought that poverty could be eliminated by private charity and
public welfare. He also thought that the higher pleasures of the mind
should be encouraged by social institutions such as education.
We can sum up Mill's view in four main theses:
Consequentialism: whether an action is right or wrong is determined by the consequences of that action.
we do seek and should seek happiness. Utility is net happiness (the
happiness that is left over after we subtract out our pains).
Maximalism: a good or right action produces the highest number of good consequences and the fewest number of bad consequences.
Universalism: we must give equal weight to the consequences for all people.
vs. Intention. On the one hand, Mill thinks that our motive is
irrelevant to whether an action is good or bad. Even if we want to do
good, our action can still be morally bad if the consequences are bad.
While the motive is unimportant to determine moral worth of actions,
Mill thinks that intention is important to determine moral worth of an
action. Motives may be used to determine if a person himself or herself
has moral value, but the action is only good or bad if the consequences
are good or bad. On the other hand, intention is relevant to the
morality of an action. Intention is what a person wants to do by an
action. In other words, an intention is just what consequences a person
is trying to achieve by his or her actions. A motive is a feeling
about why I want to do something whereas an intention is the
consequences that I hope to bring about by my action. For example, if I
bring in ice cream for all my friends, my intention is to provide my
friends with ice cream, This intention is relevant. However, my motive
is irrelevant; it does not matter if my motive is to make my friends
happy or if my motive is to manipulate my friends by buying them ice